Cross-Cultural Effects of Communication

Harold Lasswell “The Theory of Political Propaganda”
Does Lasswell successfully distinguished propaganda from advertising? Is this definition of propaganda helpful?
How to best define those boundaries? Is it significant to even debate?
Advertising in the same realm of political propaganda? Selling political loyalties, the tools will be/ could be similar. Advertising is almost a type of propaganda. For instance, the Mickey Mouse cartoons.
It seems like all languages… would be propaganda? How is this different than a conception of rhetoric? And wouldn’t circulation have to be the definition somewhere? Propaganda vs. rhetoric?
How could communication not be symbolic communication? Blurry definition.
Non-symbolic communication? Well, does it exist at all because language is arbiturary symbols.
Communication is symbolic because of its relation to ideologies in different context and interpretations, and from different levels. Time and space are also involved.

Katz & Liebes “Reading Television”

The study of the television/media is the study of the effect.
Katz and Liebes’ claim: “cultural distance“ functions to reduce audience preoccupation with “reality” programming and therefore cause critical reflection.
Why would Katz and Liebes claim that Dallas is changing the international leisure time agenda?

Can research draw equally from quantitative and qualitative data, or will one always take a secondary role?
How does an active audience change how we understand media is created and distributed?

Audiences participating online, for instance, online survey on what the audience wants to see in the next episode.
To what extent an active audience do you consider yourself to be?
How does the same audience react to the same show at a different time and space? 
Critical audience? Definition. Critical analysis, the literacy needed to understand the content, etc.
I understand an alternative perspective as an active audience after thinking about my own situation.
Lull “China Turned on”

A lot of time has passed since Lull’s piece was published and it’s worth considering why similar protests haven’t occurred in the time since. Has Chinese state media control changed? Does Lull view of television also apply to China’s approach to the internet?

Even if grassroots movements and dialogues are going on, what significant changes can we make in China’s system when the army is totally under the control of the CPC and the intellectuals can only slightly influence peoples’ minds? Does it take forever for my nation to be changed and ne respected by other nations in terms of democracy and human rights?
When Lull is talking about the image of the man in from of the tanks, why is the explanation of the image in the US media, but by the Chinese propagandas in China?

Downing suggests that their Internet is a form of “alternative media”. Is that still rule today?
How do the audience and readers of these alternative media react compared to mainstream  media in the US?
Alexander & Jacobs
It’s always a sort of relief to hear the author personally confirming in some way an attachment to what has actually happened.
How do we negotiate conflicting values, especially religious matters effectively? The ethical dimension of media seems hard to handle.

Low Self-esteem? No Self-esteem?

Max thinks she does not deserve someone rich because she has no self-esteem, not a low self-esteem. 




Two Key questions: Political Economy & Sovereignty (two dimensions of power)

Another dimension: Cultural Power (cross-cultural effects)
Political Economy: the study of control and survival on social life—Vincent Moscow—“The Political Economy of Communication” (political processes, how organizations reproduce or increase their power in social life)
This definition is too broad, no focus on the real issues involved.
Political economy is related to 1) the totality of social change and 2) history.
What political forces are driving the changes? The deep history of any institution and organization.
Political economy drives any 3) philosophical issue.
Political economy is intertwined with 4) social practice.
The political economy lens/theory/philosophy:
1. commodification: information is commodified
2. specialization: how we use technology to overcome and recreate physical or geographical constraints
3. structuration: how protocols are made normal in daily life
Mattelart’s Histoire de la société de l’information—-Political Economy
The Utopian scientific driven society—novel   technology determinism
global standards: TCP/IP & ISO
We clearly need to change our expectations of what it means to be citizens, and we need to be able to make meaningful change but how? Whether global media is empower or disempower the average person? 

The world as isolated places—whether the world is a better place compared to 100 years ago? Poverty in the United States is clearly worse. The rich-poor gap.  We care, but what do we do to help?
How might a techno-optimist respond to the general critique that the global market is dominated by American capitalism?
Does the information society or the global media system have any redeeming or worthwhile qualities?
Is standardization always a good thing?

Is capitalism necessarily a bad thing?

Is capitalism necessarily a bad thing?
Certain parts of the society should not be under the total control of capital.
The social welfare system and the polarization issue, for instance.
What will happen if capitalism doe not rule?  Does world communism & social democrats improve our livelihood in this world?
Allocation and distribution of resources. Capitalism and democracy are intertwined, why? A doubt.

The rights we have created have been adopted by corporate apparatus. 
When Schiller is talking about how the American model is found on TV scenes all over the world and he says, “People everywhere are consumers of American images, sounds, ideas, products and services”. So, why is he calling all of this globalization instead of imperialism? 
Can Academic articles on information technology keep up with the rate of innovation?
Is there something unique or different about the internet that makes it more resistant to neoliberal expansion?Gatekeeping of content, monitory control, what’s been said and what’s been shared.
Tier 1 global companies for instance, gain avenue that surpasses the sum of many state revenues. 
Back to the income disparity.

McChesney “The Media System Goes Global”
Does democracy have to be capitalist? Democracy promotes individual interest, but socialism seems promote this, too, to some extent. 
How should we hold media corporation accountable? 

Is it fair to complain about the success of a wealthy few? Does capitalism have inherent limits to how much a person can gain and how much another can suffer/lose? What would that opposition look like, and how might it be achieved? 
McChesney seems to suggest economic downturn may rouse peoples into challenging the neoliberal expansion. How valid is his suggestion? Global economic downturn weakened medium and small corporations. It’s easy to identify corporate and governmental efforts. Cable providers are hated, google is an example. It uses light, which is faster than any other ways. 
Comor “The Re-Tooling of American Hegemony”
The ability to legitimately use violence. 
“Marketplace for loyalties”: A model

Economic Term                         Market for Loyalties
sellers                                        governments & Powerholders
buyers                                       citizens, community members
price/currency                         loyalty
goods                                         identity
The problem of the model is loyalty and identity cannot be commodified? Sometimes they can be commodified, but that is sort of an ethical issue…
The Olympics
Deutsch “Nationalism and Social Communication: An Inquiry into the Foundation of Nationality”

As a consultant to the government, Deutsch basically says you have to have the idea that you are part of the other class if nationalism is to happen in a creative way. if not, no one nuts the system. 
How in practice can nationalism be tested?
Mediated connections and communication is physical even if people are not physically acting toward each other, say, virtually.
The identity issue. Do you consider yourself politically religiously, or else?
Does the internet enable transnational group cohesions that could outweigh the cultural cohesions of a nation?
Communication is crucial to the fundamental communities and nation-states.
Is there a relationship between the density of information and the strength of the community? Does more information creates a stronger society? I would say not necessarily so. Because information is this one way input into peoples’ minds, it will have to be consumed critically among people in communication.
Benedict Anderson—the Founding father of nationalism
If nationalism contains so many factors that interact dynamically in itself, how can we become able to communicate internationally in a friendly effective way, provided the differences between and among nations on these factors? Dr. Powers thinks this question of mine is excellent, but I am tortured by thinking out a way desperately every single day!
Considering the author’s conceptualization of nation as “imagined community”, what might they be missing/ignoring in terms of narratives and histories that are shared among peoples? Further, if we are to accept their notion of nation as imagined community, can we say that there are any communities that are not imagined?
What microcosmos of nations as imagined communities dose encounter in everyday on the basis of shared identity, history, experience, etc. are also market driven?
What would have become if nationality, for some reason, print had encouraged the madd learning of Latin rather than the fatality of language?
A wikipedia society?

Iwabuchi “Culture and National Border Administration in 21st Century Japan”
Is there any risk of “fashionable nationalism” igniting a divisive nationalism in the future?
We exactly have certain Japanese cultural products become so well-liked in the U.S.? is it just more exoticism, or is it something else?
Paddy Scannell’s “The Centrality of Televisions of the Center in Today’s Globalized World”
We all know we are increasingly connected to each other, and that time and space are erased in today’s new media system of communication, but how do people coordinately make the world a better place for all peoples? We have set up international organizations, but how effective are they, again?

Do Not Judge out of Your Own Subjectivity

I don’t like people judging each other. I mean, even we ourselves don’t know ourselves that much! Plus, ethics differ from time to time and from place to place. Even people’s ideas change every two seconds. 

Be openminded and responsible altogether is tough, is it a catch-22 situation?  

An ideal place is nowhere?!

I have been thinking about and comparing the public transportation here at Atlanta with that in China. It really hurts me financially when I bought my first car, which is a used car, but still, it suffices to make me bankrupt. My urgency lies not only in the financing of a car, but also the time needed to learn how to drive. With a reading list that never ends, I don’t know how much private life I will be able to have out of my PhD life. I now regret I didn’t follow my mom’s advice on learning driving early! Yet, I could not get my French training if I took a driving course that summer. It seems to me that I can never have enough time to finish all the things that I wish I could do. Sometimes I really wish I can take buses or trains to everywhere even on snowy days, like what I did in China.

The fact that I do not go out often here is that the public transportation is just not that convenient. I mean, it takes such a long time for me to go to my friends’  places in the city from where I live. It seems to me that all lower rent places requires a car whereas I cannot afford an actual higher rent place! This made me kind of missing China. However, I hate thieves on buses, and that many people with little room to even squeeze myself in. Plus the traffic! On this thought, I am happy that I am here. But I really want to buy a bike now. I know it will only happen after two months before I can afford one. I have to pay another 500$ for my used car to finish the title transfer process! Life is hard, where do I get all that money I need for this consumer society in which I myself is not a powerful customer?

I think I should quit all these nonsense utopian thoughts all day long and learn how to get back to my readings attentively. Oh, my readings for the communication course, are, to some extent, English versions of my politics course readings when I was in middle school, high school, and college. It is really weird though when I read all the jargons in English, I thought of those days when we all hated all the politics courses. When Chinese ideologies and textbooks taught me we had to overthrow capitalism and make socialism known to people from all over the world, I was confused. I become all the more confused when I watched the Oxford Union debate on whether or not socialism helps, and whether or not capitalism helps. They are damn useful if I knew I would one day make use of them, I’d hug and kiss my teachers and professors! I’d get better grades out of their courses, which would benefit my overall GPA a lot!

Anyway, I am really keen to the question of how we can help to make the world a better place. I think, I read, I talk to people, but I don’t have an answer yet. All I can do is to try to help as many people I can, try to be productive everyday, and try to become a better self everyday. When can I become a more powerful person? I want to persuade, to make believe, and to make changes. I really want to be a story teller, but that is not enough, the fast pace of this digital life does not sometimes allow that much time on stories. I admire Amy Tan and many other TED speakers. So maybe an ideal place is nowhere, but everywhere if we can make a change, even through rhetoric. The Chinese saying, “A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step” helps me and supports me. Or else, I would think this life will be lived in vain.

Tisha Savannah

"Tomorrow may be hell, but today was a good writing day, and on the good writing days nothing else matters." - Neil Gaiman

Foundations of Literary Studies: Reading Frankenstein Two Hundred Years Later

English 010 | University of California, Merced | Fall 2018



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